歌词能成为诗作吗?

来源:译言网 | 发布: | 发布时间:2016-12-13,星期二 | 阅读:800

瑞典当地时间12月10日下午4点30分,一年一度的诺贝尔奖颁奖典礼在斯德哥尔摩市政厅如期举行,瑞典国王卡尔十六世·古斯塔夫为2016年诺贝奖获奖者们颁发了奖章和证书等。今年引起争议的诺贝尔文学奖得主鲍勃·迪伦没有出席颁奖典礼。

鲍勃·迪伦获得诺贝尔奖一事引发热议,究竟歌词能否被称为文学作品?现在是否终于能够打破所有的文化屏障?我们先来看一下他的获奖感言,再读一篇BBC的报道。

鲍勃·迪伦

2016诺贝尔文学奖

我很抱歉,我不能到现场与你们一起共享此刻,但是我很确定收到如此盛大荣誉使我内心倍感荣耀。被授予诺贝尔文学奖是我从来不敢想象或者能期待的事情,从很小的时候,我便已经熟悉和阅读那些被诺奖认可的伟大的文学作品:吉卜林、托马斯·曼、赛珍珠、加缪、海明威。其作品被陈列在学校教室、在世界各地的图书馆、在虔诚的读者印象中,而我现在加入了其中,这份喜悦让我无以言表。

我不知道,这些作家是否真的想象过自己能获得诺奖,但我猜当他们创作出一部小说、一部诗集、一部戏剧时,在很深的地方已经隐藏了这个内心秘密,这个心绪藏得如此之深以至于他们自己都不知道。

如果有人告诉我,我有那么一丝希望获得诺奖,那我会认为这跟我能站在月球上的概率是差不多的。事实上,从我出生以后,几乎没有哪个获奖者是完全不受世人质疑的,我想我的获奖也会被归入到非常罕见的那部分。

当我在世界巡演过程中收到获奖信息时,我花了好一会儿去确认这个信息,我当时就想到了那位在文学史上拥有伟大形象的莎士比亚,我想他认为自己是一位剧作家,他认为他写的文字并非是进入文学,而是为戏剧舞台而生,是为了言说而不是阅读,当他在写《哈姆雷特》时候,他一定在想这些问题,“谁是适合演这个角色的演员?”“演出资金到位了吗?”“舞台现场足够容纳观众吗?”他的创作才华当然无可置疑,但他还是需要去关心这些问题,甚至在他脑海中最遥远的一个疑问是,“这是文学吗?”

当我十几岁大的时候开始写歌时,我开始对自己创作歌曲的能力有了一些认知,而对未来的期待也只是希望歌曲能够在咖啡厅或酒吧被人听到,最多是到卡内基音乐厅,如果让我梦想更大些,我希望我的音乐能被制作成唱片在电台播放,这真的是对我最大的褒奖了,拥有唱片在电台播放意味着我将接触到更庞大的听众群体,并且这将鼓励我一直按照自己的理想走下去。

是的,我有幸一直在做我为自己规划好的事情,我发行了几十张唱片,在全球举办了上千场大大小小的音乐会,我的音乐是我一生最核心的中心,我也感激在不同的现场演出中看到不同文化带给观众的享受。

但我要说,为50000人演奏和为50人演奏是完全不同的,50000人更像一个简单的角色,而50人却能呈现出不同的个性,他们能表达出更清晰的诉求,你必须付出自己最大的才能去征服他们,事实上,诺奖评委的数量比这还要少。

然而,与莎士比亚一样,我常常被音乐创作和日常杂事占据了大部分时间精力,“谁是更适合唱这首歌的人?”“这个录音室更适合这张专辑吗?”“我唱的音准对吗?”400年过去了,有些事并没有变化。

并且,我不止一次的问自己,“我的歌曲创作是文学吗?”

要感谢瑞典文学院,不仅愿意去考虑如此复杂的问题,还最终给出了如此精彩的回答。

Good evening, everyone. I extend my warmest greetings to the members of the Swedish Academy and to all of the other distinguished guests in attendance tonight.

I’m sorry I can’t be with you in person, but please know that I am most definitely with you in spirit and honored to be receiving such a prestigious prize. Being awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature is something I never could have imagined or seen coming. From an early age, I’ve been familiar with and reading and absorbing the works of those who were deemed worthy of such a distinction: Kipling, Shaw, Thomas Mann, Pearl Buck, Albert Camus, Hemingway. These giants of literature whose works are taught in the schoolroom, housed in libraries around the world and spoken of in reverent tones have always made a deep impression. That I now join the names on such a list is truly beyond words.

I don’t know if these men and women ever thought of the Nobel honor for themselves, but I suppose that anyone writing a book, or a poem, or a play anywhere in the world might harbor that secret dream deep down inside. It’s probably buried so deep that they don’t even know it’s there.

If someone had ever told me that I had the slightest chance of winning the Nobel Prize, I would have to think that I’d have about the same odds as standing on the moon. In fact, during the year I was born and for a few years after, there wasn’t anyone in the world who was considered good enough to win this Nobel Prize. So, I recognize that I am in very rare company, to say the least.

I was out on the road when I received this surprising news, and it took me more than a few minutes to properly process it. I began to think about William Shakespeare, the great literary figure. I would reckon he thought of himself as a dramatist. The thought that he was writing literature couldn’t have entered his head. His words were written for the stage. Meant to be spoken not read. When he was writing Hamlet, I’m sure he was thinking about a lot of different things: “Who’re the right actors for these roles?” “How should this be staged?” “Do I really want to set this in Denmark?” His creative vision and ambitions were no doubt at the forefront of his mind, but there were also more mundane matters to consider and deal with. “Is the financing in place?” “Are there enough good seats for my patrons?” “Where am I going to get a human skull?” I would bet that the farthest thing from Shakespeare’s mind was the question “Is this literature?”

Joan Baez和Bob Dylan

When I started writing songs as a teenager, and even as I started to achieve some renown for my abilities, my aspirations for these songs only went so far. I thought they could be heard in coffee houses or bars, maybe later in places like Carnegie Hall, the London Palladium. If I was really dreaming big, maybe I could imagine getting to make a record and then hearing my songs on the radio. That was really the big prize in my mind. Making records and hearing your songs on the radio meant that you were reaching a big audience and that you might get to keep doing what you had set out to do.

Well, I’ve been doing what I set out to do for a long time, now. I’ve made dozens of records and played thousands of concerts all around the world. But it’s my songs that are at the vital center of almost everything I do. They seemed to have found a place in the lives of many people throughout many different cultures and I’m grateful for that.

But there’s one thing I must say. As a performer I’ve played for 50,000 people and I’ve played for 50 people and I can tell you that it is harder to play for 50 people. 50,000 people have a singular persona, not so with 50. Each person has an individual, separate identity, a world unto themselves. They can perceive things more clearly. Your honesty and how it relates to the depth of your talent is tried. The fact that the Nobel committee is so small is not lost on me.

But, like Shakespeare, I too am often occupied with the pursuit of my creative endeavors and dealing with all aspects of life’s mundane matters. “Who are the best musicians for these songs?” “Am I recording in the right studio?” “Is this song in the right key?” Some things never change, even in 400 years.

Not once have I ever had the time to ask myself, “Are my songs literature?”

So, I do thank the Swedish Academy, both for taking the time to consider that very question, and, ultimately, for providing such a wonderful answer.

My best wishes to you all,

Bob Dylan

歌词能成为诗作吗?

有时,人们尊敬的文学巨匠们认为评判歌星的歌词作品是可以的。

自20世纪60年代以来,词作家首次开始追求一些别的东西,而不是简单的“moon”和“June”押韵之类的东西。

作为文化的捍卫者,文学界人士对于民众大肆吹捧这些留着长发的新贵们感到既震惊又好奇,他们觉得自己有义务发表一些言论。

近年以来,说唱歌手发现自己站在了高雅文化的中心。

2003年,地位同样重要的诺贝尔奖得主谢默斯·希尼(Seamus Heaney)曾欢呼道“这个叫艾米纳姆(Eminem)的家伙,他开创了一种新的可能,给这个年代的年轻人注入了激情活力。”

“槽糕的诗作”

约翰·萨瑟兰德(John Sutherland)是英国伦敦大学学院现代英语文学的荣誉教授,他把已故歌手吐派克·夏库尔(Tupac Shakur)的歌Hit Em Up与19世纪美国诗人沃尔特·惠特曼(Walt Whitman)自由体诗作比较。吐派克·夏库尔这首歌尽是恶意下流的脏话,歌词攻击了自认是竞争对手的说唱歌手们。说唱是一种以词句为中心的音乐形式,其精髓在于韵律和无束缚的自我表达,萨瑟兰德说道。

但艾米纳姆和吐派克都不是第一个获得诺贝尔文学奖的歌词作家。而这项荣誉将永远属于鲍勃·迪伦(Bob Dylan)。

迪伦是为数不多的能在学术界引起小风暴的音乐艺人。20世纪70年代早期,牛津大学诗学研究教授里克斯·瑞克斯(Christopher Ricks)首先开始将摇滚民谣歌手比作济慈(Keats)。

迪伦的歌词是朦胧的、顽皮的,又充满暗喻,这与众多其他的歌曲歌词不同。这一点,许多歌迷会永存谢意,他们会说,歌词不是为了成为“诗作”的,反过来也一样。

“歌曲作家并不是诗人。”2008年,一位英国著名的诗人西蒙·阿米塔吉(Simon Armitage)在《卫报》上说道。

“我认为,歌曲并不是诗作。事实上,歌曲通常都是槽糕的诗作。除去音乐后,剩下的通常只是笨拙又零碎的创意写作,风格不一的音节,俗气的押韵,用烂了的陈词滥调和一团混杂的隐喻。” 阿米塔吉的评价让歌曲作家感觉自己的作品受到轻视,他们总能搜出他写给自己喜爱的乐队的歌词。在2013年的一次采访中,阿米塔吉承认他的歌词“总的来说,太啰嗦了”。

“意味深长又中肯的”

这位诗人是亚历克斯·特纳的崇拜者,北极泼猴乐队(The Arctic Monkeys)的首席词曲作家。在乐队的早期专辑中,他用诙谐又富于双关语的歌词描述了日常生活,这被看作是牢牢继承了贾维斯·卡克(Jarvis Cocker)的英国社会现实主义传统或被人们称作奇想乐团(The Kinks)的雷·戴维斯。

这些作家显然都有音乐写词的天赋。这些词作究竟是不是文学,这难道重要吗?

霍华德·拉姆齐(Howard Rambsy)教授在南伊利诺大学教授说唱歌词这一课程,他非常认可这个观点。

他对鲍勃·迪伦获得诺贝尔奖一事非常激动,有些社交媒体声称诺贝尔奖应颁给更应当获奖的小说家或诗人,他对此不予置评。这有助于解决一场关于歌词是否应属于严肃文学的“大争辩”。”至少对于诺贝尔文学奖组委会来说,这个答案是肯定的”。霍华德·拉姆齐说道。

“说唱中总会有好的句子出现,机智的双关语会带来各种各样的想法,在某种程度上,这是意味深长而又中肯的。而在这其中的佼佼者是能够把这些想法编织成一个故事的。” 拉姆齐教授说道。

“伟大的思想”

说唱根源于文学——例如六十年代的激进派“最后的诗人”和吉尔·史考特·赫伦(Gil Scott Heron)。赫伦是《革命不会被电视转播》(The Revolution Will Not Be Televised)的歌词作家,但他起初是一名小说家。那个年代的说唱歌手不像鲍勃·迪伦那一代在咖啡馆创作的人,他们并没有这份文学上的野心。

文学世界和音乐世界是双向交通轨道,这源于早几十年前垮掉的一代。里奥纳德·科恩(Leonard Cohen)是一位有作品出版的诗人,毫不费力地走入了大众民谣歌手的行列。约翰·列侬(John Lennon)则出版了大量自己写的打油诗。

歌词一开始打印在唱片封套的插页上,因为听众是受过教育的年轻人,他们迫切渴望自己喜爱的音乐是有深度,有意义的,他们需要一个机会来仔细阅读歌词,就仿佛这些歌词是文学上的伟大作品一般。

那些畅销量颇丰的艺人,例如披头士乐队和滚石乐队都是从迪伦那里获得启发,开始渲染抒情诗调的色彩,选取了更多的严肃性主题。“他们的区别在于迪伦总是可以毫不费力地做到严肃性这一点,他就是做到了。”迪伦自传的作者霍华德·桑纳斯写道,”因为他具有伟大的思想,所以他的作品是严肃的“。

“无论是把迪伦的歌词称为诗作也好,不称为诗作也好,他的歌都极具诗意和文学价值,既复杂又微妙,既聪慧又有趣,既悲伤又具有深意:你想要的一切都在这歌中。没有人比他更有资格获得诺贝尔奖了。“

迪伦他本人极少在文学上表达出任何的虚荣做作,除了他借鉴尊敬威尔士诗人迪伦·托马斯(Dylan Thomas)的名字而改了自己的艺名。(迪伦出生时的名字叫做罗伯特·齐摩尔曼)

Blowin in the Wind Bob Dylan – The Origins

注明:以上文章节选自作者By Brian Wheeler的报道,译者fourAF蒋轩。



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