第六次大灭绝?全球20%动物临消失

发布: | 发布时间:2010-10-29,星期五 | 阅读:9,483

全球20%的哺乳动物、鸟类、鱼类、爬行动物和两栖动物都面临灭绝的威胁。

中评社香港10月29日电/据一个国际科研团队最近对地球生物进行了一次大调查,发现全球20%的哺乳动物、鸟类、鱼类、爬行动物和两栖动物都面临灭绝的威胁。有些科学家认为,世界正在进行“第六次大灭绝”,人类要为此承担主要责任,并应尽快采取相关保护措施。

英国《每日邮报》10月27日报道,该研究结果发表在最新一期《科学》杂志上,研究同时发现,濒危脊椎动物的数量仍在不断减少。比如,凶猛的老虎和山地大猩猩都面临着被猎杀以及栖息地减少的威胁,山地大猩猩的数量已经缩减到700只;袋獾、里海海豹、欧洲鳗鱼以及亚洲渔猫等都身处险境;因为人类过度捕捞,全球最大的动物蓝鲸也面临危险。

研究显示,全球大约20%的脊椎动物被归为“受到灭绝威胁的物种”之列,包括25%的哺乳动物、13%的鸟类、22%的爬行动物以及41%的两栖动物。大约33%的软骨鱼(诸如鲨鱼、鳐鱼、灰鳐等)和15%的硬骨鱼濒临灭绝。每年平均有52种哺乳动物、鸟类和两栖类朝灭绝上移一个等级。

该研究报告分析了2.5万种动物的生存境况,这些物种都列于世界自然保护同盟(IUCN)制定的濒危物种“红色名单”之中。IUCN是一个非政府组织,它制定的濒危物种等级标准和濒危物种“红色名单”得到了国际上广泛承认。如果不对野生动物采取保护行动,该名单中20%以上的物种将从“濒危”迈入“极危”。

因大力发展农业、森林大火以及乱砍滥伐,东南亚野生动物消失情况更为常见,已经成为“受灭绝威胁动物”最集中的地区,而且,外来物种的入侵也威胁着东南亚的本地物种。

世界著名生态学家、哈佛大学教授爱德华.威尔逊教授警告说:“上述种种场景仅仅是正在发生的全球物种消失的一些小序曲。”有些科学家认为,世界正在进行“第六次大灭绝”,在地球40亿年历史中,已经出现过5次大灭绝,恐龙也于6500万年前从地球上彻底消失。

研究人员强调,大多数动物数量下降可以逆转,比如,得益于人们的种种努力,包括防止过度捕捉以及保护其栖息地等,64种动物的生存境况得到了极大改善。但在16%的案例中,那些受到威胁的物种最终完全灭绝。

伦敦动物学会环保项目主任乔纳森.贝利表示,我们应该加大保护力度,以对抗动物所面临的前所未有的威胁。

日前,联合国《生物多样性公约》第十次缔约方会议正在日本名古屋召开。该大会于10月18日开幕,来自190多个国家和地区的代表将在两周内,讨论生物多样性不断受损对人类社会以及自然环境造成的影响,商讨如何保护全球物种多样性,并为制订2010年至2020年的保护生物多样性计划进行最终谈判。



 

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