TED演讲:请相信你能进步的力量!这真的太重要了!

发布: | 发布时间:2019-03-25,星期一 | 阅读:361

The power of yet.

专注过程,而不是结果。

I heard about a high school in Chicago

我听说,在芝加哥有一所高中,

where students had to pass a certain number of courses to graduate,

那儿的学生毕业前要通过一系列课程,

and if they didn’t pass a course, they got the grade “Not Yet.”

如果某一门课没有通过, 成绩就是「暂未通过」。

And I thought that was fantastic,

我想,这真是个绝妙的做法,

because if you get a failing grade, you think, I’m nothing, I’m nowhere.

因为,如果你某门课的成绩不及格, 你会想,我什么都不是,我什么都没有学到。

But if you get the grade “Not Yet”,

但如果你的成绩是「暂未通过」,

you understand that you’re on a learning curve.

你会明白,学习的步伐并没有停下,

It gives you a path into the future.

你还需逐步向前,争取未来。

Not Yet also gave me insight

「暂未通过」也让我联想起

into a critical event early in my career,

一件尤为重要的 发生在我职业生涯初期的事情,

a real turning point.

这件事对我而言是一个转折点。

I wanted to see

当时,我想探究

how children coped with challenge and difficulty,

孩子是如何应对挑战和困难的,

so I gave 10-year-olds

因此,我让一些10岁大的孩子

problems that were slightly too hard for them.

尝试解决一些对于他们而言 稍稍偏难的问题。

Some of them reacted in a shockingly positive way.

一些孩子积极应对的方式让我感到震惊。

They said things like, “I love a challenge,”

他们会这样说, 「我喜欢挑战,」

or, “You know, I was hoping this would be informative.”

或说,「你知道的,我希望能有所获。」

They understood that their abilities could be developed.

这些孩子明白,他们的能力是可以提升的。

They had what I call a growth mindset.

他们有我所说的成长型思维模式。

But other students felt it was tragic, catastrophic.

但另一些孩子觉得面对这些难题 是不幸,宛如面对一场灾难。

From their more fixed mindset perspective,

从他们的固定型思维角度来看,

their intelligence had been up for judgment,

他们的才智受到了评判,

and they failed.

而他们失败了。

Instead of luxuriating in the power of yet,

他们不懂得享受学习的过程,

they were gripped in the tyranny of now.

而只盯住眼前的成与败,

So what do they do next?

这些孩子们后面表现如何?

I’ll tell you what they do next.

让我告诉你他们的表现。

In one study, they told us they would probably cheat the next time

在一项研究中,他们告诉我们, 如果他们某次考试未通过,他们很可能会在下次考试中作弊,

instead of studying more if they failed a test.

而不是更加努力地学习。

In another study, after a failure,

在另一项研究中,他们挂了一门后,

they looked for someone who did worse than they did

他们会找到那些考得还不如他们高的孩子,

so they could feel really good about themselves.

以寻求自我安慰。

And in study after study, they have run from difficulty.

后续的研究陆续表明, 他们会逃避困难。

Scientists measured the electrical activity from the brain

科学家们监测了学生们面对错误时的

as students confronted an error.

脑电活动图像。

On the left, you see the fixed-mindset students.

在左侧,是固定型思维模式的学生,

There’s hardly any activity.

几乎没有什么活动。

They run from the error.

他们在错误面前选择了逃避。

They don’t engage with it.

他们没有积极地投入。

But on the right, you have the students with the growth mindset,

但请看右侧,这是成长型思维模式的学生,

the idea that abilities can be developed.

这些学生相信能力会通过锻炼得以提升。

They engage deeply.

他们积极地应对错误。

Their brain is on fire with yet.

他们的大脑在高速运转,

They engage deeply.

他们积极地投入,

They process the error.

他们剖析错误,

They learn from it and they correct it.

从中学习,最终订正。

How are we raising our children?

如今我们是如何教育孩子的呢?

Are we raising them for now instead of yet?

是教育他们专注眼前,而不是注重过程吗?

Are we raising kids who are obsessed with getting As?

我们培育了一些迷恋刷A的孩子们吗?

Are we raising kids who don’t know how to dream big dreams?

我们培育了没有远大理想的孩子们吗?

Their biggest goal is getting the next A, or the next test score?

他们最远大的目标就是再拿一个A, 心里所想的就是下一次考试吗?

And are they carrying this need for constant validation with them

他们在今后的生活中,都以分数的高低

into their future lives?

来评判自己吗?

Maybe, because employers are coming to me and saying,

或许是的,因为企业雇主们跑来找我,

We have already raised a generation

说我们养育的这新一代走上工作岗位的人,

of young workers who can’t get through the day

他们一天都过不下去,

without an award.”

如果不给他们奖励。

So what can we do?

我们该怎么做呢?

How can we build that bridge to yet?

如何让孩子注重过程而不是结果呢?

Here are some things we can do.

我们可以做这样几件事。

First of all, we can praise wisely,

首先,我们可以有技巧地去表扬:

not praising intelligence or talent.

不去表扬天分或才智,

That has failed.

这行不通。

Don’t do that anymore.

不要再这样做了。

But praising the process that kids engage in,

而是要对孩子积极投入的过程进行表扬:

their effort, their strategies, their focus, their perseverance,

他们的努力与策略, 他们的专注、坚持

their improvement.

与进步。

This process praise creates kids who are hardy and resilient.

对过程的表扬会塑造孩子的韧性。

There are other ways to reward yet.

还有其他的办法来奖励过程。

We recently teamed up with game scientists

最近,我们与来自华盛顿大学的

from the University of Washington

游戏研究者合作,

to create a new online math game that rewarded yet.

制作了一款奖励过程的数学游戏。

In this game, students were rewarded for effort, strategy and progress.

在这个游戏中,学生们因他们的 努力、策略与进步而受到奖励。

The usual math game

通常的数学游戏中,

rewards you for getting answers right, right now,

玩家只有在解得正确答案后 才能得到奖励,

but this game rewarded process.

但这个游戏奖励过程。

And we got more effort,

随着游戏的深入孩子们更加努力,

more strategies,

想出更多的策略,

more engagement over longer periods of time,

身心更加投入,

and more perseverance when they hit really, really hard problems.

当遇到尤为困难的问题时, 他们也展现了更为持久的韧劲。

Just the words “yet” or “not yet,” we’re finding,

我们发现,注重过程的思维模式,

give kids greater confidence,

会赋予孩子们更多自信,

give them a path into the future that creates greater persistence.

指引他们不断向前,越发坚持不懈。

And we can actually change students’ mindsets.

事实上,我们能够改变学生的思维模式。

In one study, we taught them

在一项研究中,我们告诉学生们,

that every time they push out of their comfort zone

每当他们迫使自己走出舒适区,

to learn something new and difficult,

学习新知识,迎接新挑战,

the neurons in their brain can form new, stronger connections,

大脑中的神经元会形成新的 更强的连接,

and over time, they can get smarter.

他们会逐渐变得越来越聪明。

Look what happened: In this study,

看看后面发生了什么吧:在这项研究中,

students who were not taught this growth mindset

没有接受成长型思维模式训练的学生,

continued to show declining grades over this difficult school transition,

在这一困难的过渡阶段,成绩持续下滑,

but those who were taught this lesson showed a sharp rebound in their grades.

但那些受过该训练的学生, 成绩强势反弹,卓有起色。

We have shown this now, this kind of improvement,

如今,我们已证实这一结论,

with thousands and thousands of kids, especially struggling students.

通过成千上万个孩子的实例, 尤其是那些在学业上挣扎的孩子。

So let’s talk about equality.

那我们就来谈谈教育平等吧。

In our country, there are groups of students

在我们国家,有些特定区域的孩子

who chronically underperform,

总是在学业上处于下游,

for example, children in inner cities,

比如,内城区的孩子,

or children on Native American reservations.

或印第安人居留地里的孩子。

And they’ve done so poorly for so long

长期以来这里的孩子都没什么起色,

that many people think it’s inevitable.

以致于很多人认为没的救了。

But when educators create growth mindset classrooms

但是当教育家们将孩子的思维

steeped in yet,

转变为成长型思维模式时,

equality happens.

教育平等实现了。

And here are just a few examples.

举几个例子吧。

In one year, a kindergarten class in Harlem, New York

纽约哈莱姆区的一所幼儿园的学生 在一年的时间内,

scored in the 95th percentile

国家水平测试(National Achievement Test)

on the national achievement test.

成绩飞跃到前百分之五。

Many of those kids could not hold a pencil

这些孩子中有很多在入学时

when they arrived at school.

甚至还不会握笔。

In one year,

一年之内,

fourth-grade students in the South Bronx, way behind,

远远落后的南布朗克斯区的四年级学生,

became the number one fourth-grade class in the state of New York

其标准数学测试成绩攀升到

on the state math test.

纽约州所有四年级学生的第一名。

In a year, to a year and a half,

在一年到一年半的时间内,

Native American students in a school on a reservation

某印第安人居留地的一所学校里的学生

went from the bottom of their district to the top,

成绩从全区垫底到名列前茅,

and that district included affluent sections of Seattle.

而这个区包括了西雅图市的富饶地段。

So the Native kids outdid the Microsoft kids.

印第安孩子战胜了「微软」孩子。

This happened because the meaning of effort and difficulty were transformed.

这得以实现的原因,是努力与困难的意义在孩子心目中发生了改变。

Before, effort and difficulty

在此之前,努力与困难

made them feel dumb, made them feel like giving up,

让他们感觉自己很笨, 让他们想放弃,

but now, effort and difficulty,

但如今,正是努力与困难让

that’s when their neurons are making new connections,

他们大脑中的神经元得以形成新的连接,

stronger connections.

更强的连接。

That’s when they’re getting smarter.

正是在这个过程中,他们变得越来越聪明。

I received a letter recently from a 13-year-old boy.

最近,我收到一个13岁男孩的来信。

He said, “Dear Professor Dweck,

他说,「亲爱的德韦克教授,

I appreciate that your writing is based on solid scientific research,

我欣赏你的著作, 因为它们都基于可靠的科学试验,

and that’s why I decided to put it into practice.

因此,我决定将你的方法付诸实践。

I put more effort into my schoolwork,

我更用功地学习,

into my relationship with my family,

更用心地处好与家人的关系,

and into my relationship with kids at school,

与同学的关系,

and I experienced great improvement in all of those areas.

而在这些方面我都有了长足的进步。

I now realize I’ve wasted most of my life.”

现在我才意识到,过去浪费了太多生命。」

Let’s not waste any more lives,

让我们不再浪费生命,

because once we know

因为,既然我们知道

that abilities are capable of such growth,

能力可以增长,

it becomes a basic human right for children, all children,

那么,生活在一个能激发进步

to live in places that create that growth,

并让这一切变得可能的地方

to live in places filled with “yet”.

就是每个孩子的权利。

Thank you.

谢谢。

(Applause)

(掌声)

尽管很多时候,外界因素我们不能把握,但个人行动却可以产生前进的动力,这力量的源泉就来自坚定的信念。唯有信念,是永远不可战胜的。

人生实苦,但是请你足够相信,你有足够的力量去进步!

信念是黑暗中的光亮,让我们在踌躇迷惘中找到自我,信念是心胸的一种豁达,因为锁定目标,而不计较那些无关紧要的细枝末节。

都说梦想是价值的源泉,眼光决定未来的一切。而我觉得,坚定的信念,比成功本身更重要,人生只有难免的挫折,没有绝对的失败,生命的质量就是来自决不妥协的信念。

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